Unraveling the use of CBD in veterinary medicine

It was about the 3rd week into Bastion’s recovery from his TPLO surgery and he was currently obtaining a rough time. Bastion was a gregarious yellow Labrador who had his injured stifle about 25 days ago. Thankfully, his household elected for him to have his stifle surgically reconstructed. Initially, he had recovered effectively from surgery. But 1 day in unique, he presented to the hospital due to the fact he had a short setback. He was limping far extra severely than what would be usually anticipated at this stage of recovery.

The osteotomy from his surgery had not but absolutely healed and he was nevertheless in the middle of his prescribed five weeks of exercising strict restriction. His household was attempting their very best but Bastion wasn’t obtaining it. He was also active at property and his humans have been developing frustrated. Anti-anxiousness medicines had been dispensed but they have been not provided. Alternatively, his household had decided to give him CBD oil at property. When I asked why the prescribed medicines had not been provided, the client responded, “I located CBD oil at the neighborhood farmer’s marketplace and I figured it would perform just as effectively.”

Like Bastion, an growing quantity of pets are getting cannabidiol (CBD) supplements. The reputation of CBD continues to rise and quite a few customers are incorporating CBD as portion of the medication protocol for their pets, either as an adjunct or, as option therapy choice.

Probably the initial interest in the rewards of CBD can be traced back to 1998, or possibly earlier, when scientists at the National Institutes of Wellness found that CBD could defend cells from oxidative anxiety. These findings fueled interest in the human health-related field and, in big portion, that appeal has been transmuted into veterinary medicine. The regard for this molecule has risen to such levels that in quite a few residences, CBD is getting utilised as the sole therapy choice for a wide variety of health-related circumstances.

Veterinarians are becoming extra fluent in the fascinating pharmacology relating to the use of this phytocannabinoid. A current survey indicated that most veterinarians (61.five%) felt comfy discussing the use of CBD with their colleagues, but only 45.five% felt comfy discussing this subject with customers.1 In addition, veterinarians and customers in states with legalized recreational marijuana have been extra probably to speak about the use of CBD items to treat canine ailments than these in other states.two Lastly, CBD was most often discussed as a possible therapy for discomfort management, anxiousness and seizures.1 At initially glance, the use of CBD has tangential or restricted relevance in the planet of veterinary surgery. Having said that, as 1 requires a closer appear at the putative, and confirmed rewards, it is clear that we are just scratching the surface of its therapeutic rewards. This short article requires a short dive into the planet of CBD and its guarantee in the field of veterinary surgery.


Irrespective of whether you execute surgery inside a specialty discipline (oncology, orthopedics, neurology, soft tissue surgery, mixed animal, oral/dental, and so forth), or surgery is only a little portion of your common practice, just about every veterinarian endeavors to aggressively handle discomfort. The initially decision for discomfort relief amongst quite a few clinicians are the medicines that have been extra extensively studied which includes, but not restricted to, anti-inflammatories, gabapentinoids, opioids, neighborhood anesthetics, and other analgesics (acetaminophen, amantadine, cerenia and so forth). These medicines or a mixture thereof, have been prescribed to treat discomfort from orthopedic surgery, soft tissue surgery, surgical neuropathic circumstances, discomfort from intestinal surgery, to name just a couple of. In the most simple schema, discomfort is divided into 4 categories: nociceptive discomfort (a response to broken tissue), neuropathic discomfort (a response to straight-broken sensory or spinal nerves), centralized discomfort (the outcome of discomfort signals getting improperly amplified), and inflammatory discomfort.1 Cannabinoids may well have a function to play in mediating all 4 of these forms of discomfort states. When tissue is broken, histamine, serotonin, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-six, and Il -17 six, and interleukin 17 are released.two Cannabinoids bind to the CB1 receptors and attenuate the discomfort signal by slowing down the release of these neurotransmitters.three This course of action can take location locally or in the central nervous program.three Cannabinoids have also been shown to inhibit the release of GABA, a effectively identified neurotransmitter linked with discomfort.three Even though there is a paucity of clinical analysis on the use of CBD to treat postoperative discomfort in the veterinary health-related setting, there has been heartening analysis carried out in humans. Certainly, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded that there is, “substantial proof that cannabis is an powerful therapy for chronic discomfort in adults.”

Opioids have lengthy been the go to choice, or cornerstone of discomfort management, nonetheless, the possible for the adverse events linked with the use of opioids in veterinary individuals is universally accepted.38 I have observed how distressing it can be for a household to see their pet experiencing any of the unpleasurable side effects of opioids which includes urine retention, delayed bowel movements, whining, panting, disorientation, or other manifestations of dysphoria. These are just some of the challenges that clinicians face when applying opioids for chronic discomfort management. Taking into consideration the ongoing consequences of the opioid epidemic, there is a search for discomfort management options that are revolutionary, prone to much less adverse events, and are extra powerful. As the scientific neighborhood starts to evaluate the proof for use of CBD , it is clear that extra analysis is required.

Anecdotal reports of CBD’s efficacy as a discomfort reliever are ubiquitous but extra are turning to scientific information for proof of CBD’s efficacy. A study in 2020 evaluating effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and high quality of life indicators in chronic discomfort individuals located that more than half of chronic discomfort individuals (53%) decreased or eliminated their opioids inside eight weeks just after adding CBD-wealthy hemp extract to their regimens.five Just about all CBD customers (94%) reported high quality of life improvements.five And in a current study evaluating orally consumed cannabinoids for lengthy-lasting relief of allodynia in a mouse model, located that cannabinoids decreased hyperalgesia and a equivalent impact was not located with morphine.four Mouse vocalizations have been recorded all through the experiment, and mice showed a big raise in ultrasonic, broadband clicks just after sciatic nerve injury, which was reversed by THC, CBD, and morphine.four The study demonstrated that cannabinoids offer lengthy-term relief of chronic discomfort states.four If analysis shows that use of cannabinoids in animals, especially, CBD, can aid to reduce the use of opioids for discomfort management, that would aid make extra animals comfy and potentially aid to fight the tragic epidemic of human prescription opioid abuse. Additional analysis is required in a wide variety of species, especially, each the canine and feline species.

Bone Healing

Each common veterinary practitioners and veterinary surgeons normally diagnose and treat fractures. A big retrospective study of fracture incidence in dogs in North America has not been published considering the fact that 1994 nonetheless, the findings from that study are nevertheless informative relating to the frequency of bone injuries. That study demonstrated that around 24% of all individuals in the population studied more than a ten year period have been impacted by a disorder of the musculoskeletal program, with fractures contributing the biggest proportion (more than 29%) of all of the diagnosis of the appendicular skeletal program.7 Even though that analysis is dated, the conclusions from this study – at the quite least, indicate that fractures are commonplace in the clinical veterinary setting.7 Fracture repair has progressively turn out to be extra simple due to improvements in technologies. Since of these innovations, speciality surgeons and common practitioners who repair fractures have begun to see greater surgical outcomes. So whether or not you mainly stabilize fractures with implants, or if external coaptation of fractures with the intention to refer (or possibly as the major suggests of fixation) is your therapy of decision, all veterinary practitioners aim to aid fractured bones heal swiftly. In spite of these technological improvements, bone healing can be protracted or non existent with some fractures. There are a wide variety of choices at a veterinarian’s disposal to kick-start off the healing course of action but possibly in the close to future, CBD may well be added to that armamentarium. The impact of CBD in fracture healing has been investigated evaluating bone callus formation in femur fractures in a rat model.eight The findings demonstrated enhanced biomechanical properties of healing fractures in these provided CBD compared with a manage group.eight This impact was not located in these only provided Δ9-THC. Additionally, the bone forming effects (osteogenic) of CBD have been weakened when test subjects have been provided equal amounts of CBD and Δ9-THC.six An additional in vivo analysis study indicated that when CBD is incorporated into a surface that promotes bone development (osteoconductive scaffold) it can stimulate stem cell migration and osteogenic differentiation.9 Additional research are required to greater evaluate the function of CBD in healing and bone metabolism of companion animals so that these findings can be applied in the clinical setting.

Also, cannabis has been shown to be a helpful addition in therapy plans optimized to increase bone wellness in laboratory research. A study endeavored to extra closely realize the function of CB2 receptors in keeping bone wellness. CB2 receptors in bone cells have been linked to keeping bone density and stimulating development, and may well thus have a portion in reversing the effects of osteoporosis.ten 1 study evaluating function of CB2 receptors, located that in mice whose genes had been altered to take away the CB1 or CB2 receptors, these that created indicators of bone weakness that have been far extra pronounced than these in the manage group.12 An additional study in 2009, investigated the connection among CB2 expression and bone illness in humans. The study located that people today with dysfunctional CB2 receptors to have drastically weaker hand bones.11


Osteoarthritis (OA) impacts quite a few dogs, big and little. Most frequently, OA is the consequence of a developmental orthopedic illness that frequently impacts a single joint or a pair of joints, and, much less frequently, impacts many joints. It is axiomatic that ‘Mother Nature likes symmetry’ hence developmental orthopedic illnesses often influence each left and proper joints. For instance, hip dysplasia is reportedly bilateral in &gt60% of impacted dog,s13 and elbow dysplasia is bilateral in around 50% of impacted dogs.14 Osteoarthritis happens secondary to a myriad of major orthopedic circumstances that influence a wide variety of joints which includes: the hip (most popular causes of OA in the hip: hip dysplasia, Perthes illness) stifle (patellar luxation, cranial cruciate ligament illness, osteochondritis dissecans [OCD]) elbow (elbow dysplasia, elbow OCD, fragmentation of the medial coronoid course of action, incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle) shoulder (shoulder OCD, developmental shoulder subluxation) tarsus (OCD of the talus), and carpus (carpal laxity, carpal subluxation secondary to chondrodystrophy) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint degenerative osteoarthritis (digital osteoarthritis) .

Cannabinoids have been located to treat discomfort secondary to inflammation in a wide variety of research on humans. Some of the most compelling analysis has shown that cannabis can decrease the inflammation in the joint brought on in human individuals diagnosed with immune mediated arthritis.15 1 study located that cannabinoids could simultaneously decrease the secretion of cytokines involved in inflammation from 1 kind of TH immune cells, which have been getting beneath-created, whilst also growing their numbers to appropriate their scarcity.15 In addition in a study in 2003, researchers located that plant-primarily based cannabinoids could suppress the expression of interleukin-1beta—one of the most prominent markers for inflammation in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis—by as a lot as 50%.16 And ultimately, in 2006, transdermal applications of CBD have been shown to reduce biomarkers that can contribute to neurogenic inflammation in a sample of arthritic rats. 17

A report published in the journal of Discomfort, lead by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine revealed the final results of a big, double blinded, placebo controlled study on the constructive effects CBD had in the fight against osteoarthritis.18 The study was created with two principal targets: The initially portion of the analysis studied the impact CBD had on the inflammatory molecules and cells in mice.18 The second portion of the study, investigated whether or not CBD enhanced the high quality of life in dogs diagnosed with osteoarthritis. In lab tests and in mouse models, CBD drastically decreased the production of all-natural chemical substances that market inflammation and it improved the all-natural chemical substances that fight inflammation.18 Primarily, what they saw was a drop in proinflammatory cytokines and an raise in anti-inflammatory cytokines. 18 For dogs with osteoarthritis, CBD drastically decreased discomfort and improved mobility in a dose-dependent style. Importantly, A reduce dose of liposomal CBD was as powerful as the highest dose of nonliposomal CBD, indicating that the impact of CBD was faster and extra powerful when CBD was delivered encapsulated in liposomes than without the need of.18 Blood samples indicated no considerable damaging side effects, or adverse events, more than the four-week evaluation period.18 Even though this study is quite promising and it supports the security and therapeutic possible of hemp-derived CBD for relieving arthritic discomfort in dogs, it is crucial to seek the advice of with your pet’s veterinarian just before providing any supplement or medication.

In the veterinary population, use of cannabidiol and other option treatment options may well have the possible to obviate the have to have for other medicines, and hence spare individuals from adverse effects linked with their use. Far more probably, the use of cannabinoids could be additive or synergistic in a multimodal therapy approach and could raise high quality-of-life troubles linked with painful arthritic circumstances.

Intervertebral Disk Illness

As our individuals age, discs in the spine also undergo degenerative modifications. Hence, degeneration of intervertebral discs is evitable. This course of action of degeneration is multifactorial course of action and it entails hypoxia, inflammation, neoinnervation, accelerated catabolism, and reduction in water and glycosaminoglycan content material.39 The magnitude and severity of disc degeneration can differ broadly among individuals. The most popular places of clinically relevant disc illness are situated in the cervical spine, thoracolumbar spine, and the lumbosacral spine.40 Even though there are many manifestations of disc illness, broad classifications of Hansen Form I and Form II are usually utilised to describe the situation. In quick, disc material may well either extrude (acute herniations) or protrude (chronic herniations), each of which compress the spinal cord which eventually can lead to discomfort, paresis, paralysis and other neurological deficits.40 The prevalence of thoracolumbar disc illness dogs has been estimated at three.five%.40 Based on the neurologic examination, diagnosis, severity, prognosis, and other components, surgery may well be advisable to decompress the spinal cord.

Just after surgical decompression, there are a host of challenges that the the patient, the household, and the surgeon, may well have to perform via which includes a potentially protracted recovery, recurrence of neurological indicators, post surgical discomfort, spinal instability, urinary issues, (cystitis, urinary tract infection, urinary retention, micturition issues), ascending myelomalacia, and other individuals.41 Could CBD play a portion in assisting to increase these impacted by disc illness pre-, intra-, or post-operatively and what forms of spinal issues could advantage from CBD? A study carried out on the use of CBD in mice with degenerative disc illness showed guarantee in mitigating the impact of disc harm and put on.19 Alternatively of getting ingested orally, CBD was injected at the internet site of the disc. Researchers investigated the effects of cannabidiol intradiscal injection applying a mixture of MRI and histological analyses.19 A puncture was made in the disc and then CBD was injected into the disc (30, 60 or 120 nmol) shortly just after.19 The effects of intradiscal injection of cannabidiol have been analyzed inside two days by MRI.17 Fifteen days later, the group that received cannabidiol 120 nmol was resubmitted to MRI examination and then to histological analyses just after the cannabidiol injection.19 What they located was that cannabidiol drastically decreased the effects of disc injury induced by the needle puncture.19 These final results recommend that this compound could be helpful in the therapy of intervertebral disc degeneration possibly applying a novel route of administration.

Sadly, the precise mechanism for how CBD oil helped defend disc harm is nevertheless getting investigated. The hope is that the neuroprotective properties of cannabidiol can also be located in the study of canine and feline disc illness to eventually increase functional recovery.


  1. Kogan L, Schoenfeld-Tacher R, et al. US Veterinarians’ Know-how, Practical experience, and Perception Concerning the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Health-related Situations. Front Vet Sci. 20185:338.

  2. Abd-Elsayed A., Deer T.R. (2019) Diverse Sorts of Discomfort. In: Abd-Elsayed A. (eds) Discomfort. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/ten.1007/978-three-319-99124-five_three

  3. Manzanares J, Julian MD, Carrascosa A. Function of the Cannabinoid Technique in Discomfort Manage and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Discomfort Episodes Curr Neuropharmacol. 2006 Jul four(three): 239–257.

  4. Abraham AD, Leung EJ, Brenden A, Wong BA, Rivera ZM, Kruse LC, et al. Orally consumed cannabinoids offer lengthy-lasting relief of allodynia in a mouse model of chronic neuropathic discomfort. 2020 Jun45(7):1105-1114. doi: ten.1038/s41386-019-0585-three. Epub 2019 Dec 7.

  5. Capano A, Weaver R, Burkman E. Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and high quality of life indicators in chronic discomfort individuals: a potential cohort study. Postgrad Med. 2020 Jan132(1):56-61. doi:ten.1080/00325481.2019.1685298. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

  6. Abraham AD, Leung EJ, Wong BA, Rivera ZM, Kruse LC, Clark JJ, Land BB. Orally consumed cannabinoids offer lengthy-lasting relief of allodynia in a mouse model of chronic neuropathic discomfort. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020: 45:1105–1114.

  7. Johnson, J., Austin, C., &amp Breur, G. Incidence of Canine Appendicular Musculoskeletal Issues in 16 Veterinary Teaching Hospitals from 1980 via 1989. Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 07(02), 56–69. (1994). doi:ten.1055/s-0038-1633097

  8. Kogan NM, Melamed E, Wasserman E. Cannabidiol, a Big Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts J Bone Miner Re. 2015 Oct30(ten):1905-13. doi: ten.1002/jbmr.2513. Epub 2015 May possibly ten.

  9. Kamali, A., Oryan, A., Hosseini, S., Ghanian, M. H., Alizadeh, M., Baghaban Eslaminejad, M., &amp Baharvand, H. Cannabidiol-loaded microspheres incorporated into osteoconductive scaffold improve mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and regeneration of crucial-sized bone defects. Supplies Science and Engineering: (2019). C, 101, 64–75. doi:ten.1016/j.msec.2019.03.070

  10. Bab I, Zimmer A. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Regulation of Bone Mass. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2007 153:182-188 doi:ten.1038/sj.bjp.0707593

  11. I. Idris, A. Cannabinoid Receptors as Target for Therapy of Osteoporosis: A Tale of Two Therapies. Existing Neuropharmacology. 2010. eight(three), 243–253. doi:ten.2174/157015910792246173

  12. Meliha Karsak et al. The Cannabinoid Receptor Form two (CNR2) Gene Is Linked with Hand Bone Strength Phenotypes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Family members Sample. Human Genetics. 2009. five:629-36 doi:ten.1007/s00439-009-0708-eight.

  13. Loder, R. T., &amp Todhunter, R. J. The Demographics of Canine Hip Dysplasia in the United States and Canada. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2017 1–15. doi:ten.1155/2017/5723476

  14. O’Neill DG, Brodbelt DC, Hodge R,. Church DB, Meeson RL. Epidemiology and clinical management of elbow joint illness in dogs beneath major veterinary care in the UK. Canine Medicine and Genetics. 2020 volume 7:1

  15. Susan H. Pross et al. Differential Suppression of T-cell Subpopulations by THC (delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol). International Journal of Immunopharmacology 12, no. five (1990): 539-44. doi:ten.1016/0192-0561(90)90118-7

  16. Robert B. Zurier et al. Suppression of Human Monocyte Interleukin-1β Production by Ajulemic Acid, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2003 four:649-55. doi:ten.1016/s0006-2952(02)01604-.

  17. D.c. Hammell et al. Transdermal Cannabidiol Reduces Inflammation and Discomfort-connected Behaviours in a Rat Model of Arthritis. European Journal of Discomfort. 2015 six:936-48. doi:ten.1002/ejp.818

  18. Verrico, C. D., Wesson, S., Konduri, V., Hofferek, C. J., Vazquez-Perez, J., Blair, E., … Halpert, M. M. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of every day cannabidiol for the therapy of canine osteoarthritis discomfort. 2020. Discomfort. doi:ten.1097/j.discomfort.0000000000001896

  19. Silveira, J. W., Issy, A. C., Castania, V. A., Salmon, C. E. G., Nogueira-Barbosa, M. H., Guimarães, et al. Protective Effects of Cannabidiol on Lesion-Induced Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. 2014. PLoS 1 9:12 doi:ten.1371/journal.pone.0113161

  20. Yam, M., Loh, Y., Tan, C., Khadijah Adam, S., Abdul Manan, N., &amp Basir, R. . Basic Pathways of Discomfort Sensation and the Big Neurotransmitters Involved in Discomfort Regulation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018 19(eight), 2164. doi:ten.3390/ijms19082164

  21. Costigan, M., Scholz, J., &amp Woolf, C. J. Neuropathic Discomfort: A Maladaptive Response of the Nervous Technique to Harm. Annual Overview of Neuroscience. 2009 32(1), 1–32. doi:ten.1146/annurev.neuro.051508.135531

  22. Arora A, Taliyan R, Sharma PL. Ameliorative Prospective of Cannabis Sativa Extract on Diabetes Induced Neuropathic Discomfort in Rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Investigation 1. 2010 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216536386_Ameliorative_possible_of_cannabis_sativa_extract_

  23. Mark S. Wallace et al., Efficacy of Inhaled Cannabis on Painful Diabetic Neuropathy. 2015. Discomfort 16(7): 616-27 doi:ten.1016/j.jpain.2015.03.008.

  24. Gruen, M. E., Roe, S. C., Griffith, E., Hamilton, A., &amp Sherman, B. L.. Use of trazodone to facilitate postsurgical confinement in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Health-related Association. (2014) 245(three), 296–301. doi:ten.2460/javma.245.three.296

  25. Serra, G., &amp Fratta, W. A feasible function for the endocannabinoid program in the neurobiology of depression. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Wellness. 2007. three(1), 25. doi:ten.1186/1745-0179-three-25

  26. Kim, E. J., Pellman, B., &amp Kim, J. J. Anxiety effects on the hippocampus: a crucial assessment. Studying &amp Memory. 2015. 22(9), 411–416. doi:ten.1101/lm.037291.114

  27. Demirakca, T., Sartorius, A., Ende, G., et al. Diminished gray matter in the hippocampus of cannabis customers: Attainable protective effects of cannabidiol. 2010. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. doi:ten.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.09.020

  28. Mateus M. Bergamaschi et al. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiousness Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Therapy-Naïve Social Phobia Individuals. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 36(six):1219-26 doi:ten.1038/npp.2011.six.

  29. José Alexandre S Crippa et al. Neural Basis of Anxiolytic Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Generalized Social Anxiousness Disorder: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2010. 25: 1doi:ten.1177/0269881110379283.

  30. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 120.

  31. Zieba, J., Sinclair, D., Sebree, T., Bonn-Miller, M., Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces anxiousness-connected behavior in mice by means of an FMRP1-independent mechanism. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2019. doi:ten.1016/j.pbb.2019.05.002

  32. Pamplona, F. A., da Silva, L. R., &amp Coan, A. C. Prospective Clinical Positive aspects of CBD-Wealthy Cannabis Extracts More than Purified CBD in Therapy-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Information Meta-evaluation. 2018. Frontiers in Neurology, 9. doi:ten.3389/fneur.2018.00759

  33. Palmieri B, Laurino C, Vadalà M. A therapeutic impact of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin illnesses and cutaneous scars. Mar-Apr 2019170(two):e93-e99. doi: ten.7417/CT.2019.2116.

  34. Sangiovanni, E., Fumagalli, M., Pacchetti, B., Piazza, S., et al.. Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury. (2019). Phytotherapy Investigation. doi:ten.1002/ptr.6400

  35. B. Van Klingeren and M. Ten Ham. Antibacterial Activity of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol. 1976. 42(1-two): 9-12 doi:ten.1007/bf00399444.

  36. Giovanni Appendino et al. Antibacterial Cannabinoids From Cannabis Sativa: A Structure—Activity Study. 2008. Journal of Organic Solutions 71(eight):1427-430, doi:ten.1021/np8002673

  37. McIver, V., Tsang, A., Symonds, N., Perkins, N., et al. Effects of topical therapy of cannabidiol extract in a exceptional manuka aspect five manuka honey carrier on second intention wound healing on equine distal limb wounds: a preliminary study. 2020. Australian Veterinary Journal. doi:ten.1111/avj.12932

  38. White, D. M., Mair, A. R., &amp Martinez-Taboada, F. Opioid-absolutely free anaesthesia in 3 dogs. Open Veterinary Journal. 2017 7(two), 104. doi:ten.4314/ovj.v7i2.five

  39. Hansen T, Smolders LA, Tryfonidou MA, et al: The Myth of Fibroid Degeneration in the Canine Intervertebral Disc: A Histopathological Comparison of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in Chondrodystrophic and Nonchondrodystrophic Dogs. Vet Pathol 2017 Vol 54 (six) pp. 945-952.

40. Jeffery ND, Levine JM, Olby NJ, et al: Intervertebral disk degeneration in dogs: consequences, diagnosis, therapy, and future directions. J Vet Intern Med 2013 Vol 27 (six) pp. 1318-33.

41. Balducci F, Canal S, Contiero B, et al: Prevalence and Threat Variables for Presumptive Ascending/Descending Myelomalacia in Dogs just after Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disk Herniation. J Vet Intern Med 2017 Vol 31 (two) pp. 498-504.

Latest posts